Chapter Five: Saviors, Christs, and Other Gods: “Yahweh and Jesus”
We all know these two gods; however, I want to point out a few facts that might be new information (to some) regarding Yahweh and his son. Since they, like Osiris and Horus, are sometimes interchangeable, I will discuss them together.
First, I believe the Bible presents Yahweh as a distinct god from the Canaanite high god, El. Dr. Steven Dimattei wrote:
“In the oldest literary traditions of the Pentateuch, it is El who regularly appears and not Yahweh, or Yahweh as El! The patriarchal narratives identify El as the deity to whom many of the early patriarchal shrines and altars were built. For example, we are informed in Genesis 33:20 that Jacob builds an altar in the old cultic center of the north, Shechem, and dedicates it to “El, god of Israel” (‘el ‘elohe yišra’el). There is no ambiguity in the Hebrew here: ‘el must be translated as a proper name, El. The textual tradition from which this text derives, the Elohist, ultimately remembers a time when El was the patron god of Israel. . .
“Thus there seems to be ample evidence in the biblical record to support the claim that as Yahweh became the supreme national deity of the Israelites, he began to usurp the imagery, epithets, and old cultic centers of the god El. This process of assimilation even morphed the linguistic meaning of the name El, which later came to mean simply “god,” so that Yahweh was then directly identified as ‘el—thus Joshua 22:22: “the god of gods is Yahweh” (‘el ‘elohim yhwh).
“Noteworthy also is the fact that unlike the god Baal, there is no polemic in the Bible against El, and all the old cultic centers of El, those in Jerusalem, Shechem, and Beersheba, were later accredited to Yahweh. Since the large majority of patriarchal narratives that speak of shrines and altars to El are found in the northern kingdom, such as Bethel and Shechem, and, on the other hand, many biblical texts seem to accredit Yahweh’s origin to the southern Negeb, the current scholarly hypothesis is that the worship of El in the north and of Yahweh in the south eventually merged. This thesis finds further support in the incident of Jeroboam, who may have acted to reestablish the cult of Yahweh-El at Dan and Bethel via his “golden bulls” . . . In sum, the biblical literature, spanning as it does hundreds of centuries of cultural and cultic traditions, preserves divergent views, portraits, theologies, and origins of its god Yahweh.” 
Dr. Doron B. Cohen pointed out that, according to Deuteronomy 32:8-9, Yahweh was given Jacob as his inheritance when the most high god El set the boundaries for the nations. Cohen noted that an ancient version of the Bible states that El (Elyon) allotted gods and lands to nations, and Yahweh was one of many gods in his pantheon.
When the Most High [Elyon] gave the nations each their heritage, when he partitioned out the human race, he assigned the boundaries of nations according to the number of the children of God, but Yahweh’s portion was his people, Jacob was to be the measure of his inheritance. (New Jerusalem Bible, 1985)
(As Dr. Dimattei wrote, “At some point, it is ascertained, the cultic worship of Yahweh must have absorbed that of El, through which means Yahweh assimilated both the imagery and epithets once used of El.”) The English Standard Version (ESV) also translates this allotment as being a division according to the sons of God, and it states that Yahweh received Jacob as his “allotted heritage.” Bob Seidensticker noted regarding this:
“Here we see Elyon, the head of the divine pantheon, dividing humankind among his children, giving each his inheritance. The idea of a divine pantheon with a chief deity, his consort, and their children (the council of the gods) was widespread through the Ancient Near East. Elyon (short for El Elyon) is the chief god, not just in Jewish writings but in Canaanite literature. The passage concludes with Yahweh getting Israel as his inheritance.
“We learn more about terms like ‘sons of the gods’ by widening our focus to consider Ugaritic (Canaanite) texts. Ugarit was a Canaanite city destroyed along with much of the Ancient Near East during the Bronze Age Collapse in roughly 1200 BCE, a period of widespread chaos from which Israelite civilization seems to have grown.
“The Ugaritic texts state that El and his consort Asherah had 70 sons, which may be the origin of the 70 nations (or 72) that came from Noah’s descendants listed in Genesis 10.”
So El divided the nations, and Yahweh received Israel as his inheritance. Hence, he is, as the Bible says, the god of Israel.
As for the phrase “according to the number of the children of Israel” in the King James Version of the Bible, Robert Wright wrote:
“The King James edition got this phrase from the “Masoretic Text,” a Hebrew edition of the Bible that took shape in the early Middle Ages, more than a millennium after Deuteronomy was written. Where the Masoretic Text—the earliest extant Hebrew Bible—got it is a mystery. The phrase isn’t found in either of the two much earlier versions of the verse now available: a Hebrew version in the Dead Sea Scrolls and a Greek version in the Septuagint, a pre-Christian translation of the Hebrew Bible. . .
“Some scholars who have used the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Septuagint to reconstruct the authentic version of the verse say that ‘children of Israel’ was stuck in as a replacement for ‘sons of El.’ With that lost phrase restored, a verse that was cryptic suddenly makes sense: El—the most high god, Elyon—divided the world’s people into ethnic groups and gave one group to each of his sons. And Yahweh, one of those sons, was given the people of Jacob. Apparently at this point in Israelite history (and there’s no telling how long ago this story originated) Yahweh isn’t God, but just a god—and a son of God, one among many.”
It makes more sense that El was dividing the world among his sons (since Yahweh, a god, received a portion) than what modern Bibles, such as the King James Version, say, which is, as stated, that all the nations received a portion according to the number of Israel. We can see that the high god was transferring to lesser gods, as Yahweh inherited Israel as his special people. So the context is that the most high god was portioning out the world to his underling deities and not that Yahweh was portioning land to humans, which makes no sense at all in the context of the passage. (Of course, again, El and Yahweh have been equated. El, we saw, was the husband of Asherah, meaning Yahweh was the husband of Asherah if they eventually became the same god.)
Note the context of this passage by looking at the previous verses. Verse 7 says: “Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations: ask thy father, and he will shew thee; thy elders, and they will tell thee” (Deut. 32:7). Thom Stark wrote:
“There are no allusions here to any El epithets, no identification of Yahweh as a ‘father of years,’ or even as ‘aged.’ Verse 7 asks Israel to remember an older tradition, one the young people will have to ask their father and elders about. The old tradition says that when Elyon divided up the earth to give one nation to each of his sons as his inheritance, Yahweh’s inheritance was Israel. What is the point of saying this? Well verse 5 makes it clear: Israel is not being faithful to Yahweh. Vv. 16-17 expound on this: Israel was ungrateful to Yahweh and decided to go after other gods, despite how well Yahweh had treated them. The point of vv. 8-9 is to remind Israel that according to their old traditions, Israel belonged to Yahweh; Israel was Yahweh’s inheritance. They thus had no business looking to other gods for support. The world was rightly ordered by Elyon, and according to the divinely-established world order, Israel belonged to Yahweh. Other people belonged to other gods, but Israel belonged to Yahweh. By worshiping other gods, Israel was kicking against the divinely-established world order.
“. . . El is the father and creator of the gods, of the earth, and of humankind. And this makes perfect sense of Elyon’s function in Deut 32:8-9. But in Deuteronomy 32, Yahweh is only ever identified as father and fashioner of his own allotted people, Israel. This is how all patron deities were understood.”
This explains Yahweh’s interest in Israel only. Other nations had their own gods; Moab, for instance, was ruled by the god Chemosh (Num. 21:29, Jdg. 11:24, Jer. 48:7). It also explains why we see in Romans 11:26 that “so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob.” Jacob was Yahweh’s concern; and we see, in Revelation 7:4-8, the sons of Jacob being sealed to Yahweh. (The Bible is a Jewish book. Even the Garden of Eden is the Jewish temple’s Holy of Holies. When one went east of Eden, he left the presence of Yahweh since the temple faced east. See Book of Jubilees 8:19 and Genesis 3:24, 4:16.)
Verse 9 of Revelation 7 does say: “After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands.” However, according to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the German scholar Eberhard Vischer believed and taught that the book of Revelation was:
“originally a purely Jewish composition, and to have been changed into a Christian work by the insertion of those sections that deal with Christian subjects. From a doctrinal point of view, we think, it cannot be objected to. There are other instances where inspired writers have availed themselves of non-canonical literature. Intrinsically considered it is not improbable. The Apocalypse abounds in passages which bear no specific Christian character but, on the contrary, show a decidedly Jewish complexion.”
Crawford Howell Toy, DD, LLD, and Kaufman Kohler, PhD, wrote an article in The Jewish Encyclopedia saying:
“The last book in the New Testament canon, yet in fact one of the oldest; probably the only Judæo-Christian work which has survived the Paulinian transformation of the Church. The introductory verse betrays the complicated character of the whole work. It presents the book as a “Revelation which God gave . . . to show unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass,” and at the same time as a revelation of Jesus Christ to “his servant John.” According to recent investigations, the latter part was interpolated by the compiler, who worked the two sections of the book—the main apocalypse (ch. iv.-xxi. 6) and the letters to the “seven churches” (i.-iii. and close of xxii.)—into one so as to make the whole appear as emanating from John, the seer of the isle of Patmos in Asia Minor (see i. 9, xxii. 8), known otherwise as John the Presbyter. The anti-Paulinian character of the letters to the seven churches and the anti-Roman character of the apocalyptic section have been a source of great embarrassment, especially to Protestant theologians, ever since the days of Luther; but the apocalypse has become especially important to Jewish students since it has been discovered by Vischer . . . that the main apocalypse actually belongs to Jewish apocalyptic literature.”
Bernard D. Muller wrote: “[Revelation] 7:9-17 was NOT a part of the original Jewish version. 7:9-17 was inserted (textually right after the 144,000 Jews had been pre-selected to be saved in heaven some time later) to show Christians are God’s first choice.” Another thought to consider is that “all nations” could possibly refer only to all Jewish nations, who spoke in various tongues (Acts 2:5-6), and the passage in Revelation might be speaking of a first resurrection from each Jewish nation and then a final resurrection from the same group (Rev. 20:5-6). Based on all of the above, and the fact that the entire Old Testament and most of the New Testament concern themselves with the Israelites, we can surmise that Yahweh was/is the Jewish tribal god.
Yahweh, in Exodus 15:2, is also called Yah (Jah, as in “hallelujah”), an Egyptian moon god (see also Psalms 68:4, 18, 77:11, 89:8; and Isaiah 12:2, 26:4, and 38:11). The Egyptian god was actually known as Nuk-Pa-Nuk, or I Am That I Am, a name Yahweh also claimed (Ex. 3:14). This name was not, as the Old Testament declares, revealed by Yahweh to Moses but was in fact found written on a temple of Isis at Sais in Egypt. The name Jehovah was also a name the Egyptians considered sacred, and it too was later used by the Hebrews. Godfrey Higgins wrote:
“From this, I think, we may fairly infer, that the Egyptians were of the same religion, in its fundamentals, as the Jews. . . The book of Esther appears to have been part of the chronicles of the kings of Persia, adopted by the Jews into their canon, evidently to account for their feast of Purim.”
Jehovah IEUE was a Chaldean god, and that name too was later used by the Hebrews.
In the Bible Jesus is called by the name of the Egyptian creator god Amen: “These things saith Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creatures of God” (Rev. 3:14 GEN). Note the following, with pertinent information capitalized:
Isaiah 65:16 (KJV) That he who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in THE GOD OF TRUTH; and he that sweareth in the earth shall swear by THE GOD OF TRUTH;
Isaiah 65:16 (DR) In which he that is blessed upon the earth, shall be blessed in GOD, AMEN: and he that sweareth in the earth, shall swear by GOD, AMEN:
Putting these together we have: In which he that is blessed upon the earth, shall be blessed in THE GOD AMEN: and he that sweareth in the earth, shall swear by THE GOD AMEN:
In ancient times people thought if they knew a god’s name, they could force him to do their bidding. Richard Stuart Gordon wrote:
“The ancient Jews considered God’s true name so potent that its invocation conferred upon the speaker tremendous power over His creations. To prevent abuse of this power, as well as to avoid blasphemy, the name of God was always taboo, and increasingly disused so that by the time of Jesus their High Priest was supposedly the only individual who spoke it aloud — and then only in the Holy of Holies upon the Day of Atonement.”
Rumpelstiltskin spun gold for a princess, asking nothing in return if she could discover his name; but if not, she had to sacrifice her firstborn to him. In Exodus 3:14 Moses tried to discover the name of the god calling to him. The response was “I am that/who I am.” Yahweh wasn’t about to give power to Moses by offering his name. Today, Christians call upon the god Amen (saying “Amen” at the end of their prayers) in an attempt to “spin straw into gold” or convince Amen/Jesus to grant their various wishes.
Amen (Amon, Amun, or Ammon) was a sun god and was known as the “ultimate creator of the world.” Jesus, as Amen, was a sun god and the creator, and his life “duplicates the trajectory of the Sun in the sky,” which will be shown later. In “Hymn to Amen,” composed sometime between 1600 and 900 BCE, we read that Amen
“is the physician . . . The winds are driven back, the hurricane is repulsed. . . He delivereth the helpless one. . . He is perfect . . . All the gods are three, Amen, Rā and Ptah, and there are none like unto them . . . He breatheth breath into all nostrils. . . His wife is the earth, he uniteth with her, his seed is the tree of life, his emanations are the grain.”
Jesus is referred to as Shemesh (Mal. 4:2: the word for “sun” in Hebrew is Shemesh). Shemesh/Shamash was an “Akkadian/Babylonian sun god,” or “deity of justice.” He was called shepherd, king, god of light, king of judgment, ruler of men, and one who “puts an end to wickedness and destroys enemies” and “loosens the bonds of the imprisoned, grants health to the sick, and even revivifies the dead.”
Tina Rae Collins
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 Steven Dimattei, PhD, “#27. Are Yahweh and El the same god OR different gods? (Gen 14:22, 17:1, 21:33; Ex 6:2-3; Ps 82:1 vs Deut 32:8-9; Ps 29:1, 89:6-8),” contradictionsinthebible.com, 27 Jan. 2013, web, 23 Mar. 2015.  Doron B. Cohen, ThD, The Japanese Translations of the Hebrew Bible: History, Inventory and Analysis (Leiden, Netherlands, and Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, Inc., 2013), 148.  Cohen, The Japanese Translations of the Hebrew Bible: History, Inventory and Analysis.  Dimattei, Ibid.  Seidensticker, “Polytheism in the Bible.”  Wright, 117.  Victor Harold Matthews, “Judges and Ruth,” New Cambridge Bible Commentary (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 9.  Stark, “The Most Heiser: Yahweh and Elyon in Psalm 82 and Deuteronomy 32.”  Charles Herberman, PhD, LLD, et al., eds., The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, Vol. I (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907), 599. See also: Eberhard Vischer, Die Offenbarung Johannis: Eine Judisch Apokalypse in Christlicher Bearbeitung Mit einem Nachwort v. A. Harnack (Leipsic: J.C. Hinrichs’sche, 1886).  “Revelation (Book of): Jewish Origin,” Jewish Encyclopedia: The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, jewishencyclopedia.com, n.d., web, 2 Dec. 2014 <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12712-revelation-book-of>.  Bernard D. Muller, “Revelation of John, the original Jewish version: Apocalypse composition, dating & authorship,” n.d., web, 2 Dec. 2014 <http://historical-jesus.info/rjohn.html>.  Murdock, Did Moses Exist? 420. See also: Jimmy Dunn, “Yah (Lah), the Other Egyptian Moon God,” n.d. web, 13 Nov. 2014.  Bonwick, 395. See also: Doane, VI.  Higgins, Anacalypsis, 1, 329; and 2, 17. See also: Doane, VI.  Higgins, Anacalypsis, 1, 17; 3, 152. See also: Ernst von Bunsen, The keys of Saint Peter or The house of Rechab: connected with the history of symbolism and idolatry (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1807), 38-39; and Doane, VI.  Higgins, Anacalypsis, 1, 329; and 3, 152. See also: Doane, VI.  Richard Stuart Gordon, The Encyclopedia of Myths and Legends (London: Headline Book Publishing, 1993), 480-481.  James P. Allen, The Ancient Pyramid Texts, 425. See also: Murdock, Christ in Egypt, 115.  “Jesus Is the Sun God,” hiddenmeanings.com, n.d., web, 27 Aug. 2014 <http://www.hiddenmeanings.com/supernova.html>.  “Hymn to Amen,” from Chapter XII, “Egyptian Hymns to the Gods,” The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians, wisdomlib.org, 5 Feb. 2011, web, 21 May 2015.  “Shemesh,” My Hebrew Dictionary: Learn Hebrew Online, dictionary.co.il, 2015, web, 16 June 2015.  Murdock, Did Moses Exist? 394.  Morris Jastrow, The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (Boston: Ginn & Company, 1898), 70-72. See also: Murdock, Did Moses Exist? 396.